Frailty syndrome in aging society

Magdalena Lamch, Adrianna Nieciecka, Julia Tomys-Składowska, Monika Jabłońska, Natalia Błasik, Marta Janiszewska, Agata Wójcik-Kula


Introduction: In the face of the progressive aging of society, focusing on the needs of people over 60 years old seems to be of particular importance. Among the most common diseases of the geriatric population, cognitive dysfunction, depression, urinary incontinence, sarcopenia and frailty syndrome are distinguished, which are collectively referred to as geriatric syndromes. The aim of this review is to discuss the phenomenon of frailty syndrome, taking into account its etiology, epidemiology, diagnostic criteria and treatment options.
Materials and methods: This article contains an overview of publications from the PubMed and Google Scholar databases.
Results: Frailty syndrome is defined as a multi-causal medical syndrome that increases the risk of loss of independence and/or death. Data on the incidence of this phenomenon remain inconsistent. An important role in pathogenesis is played by chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, sarcopenia and vitamin D3 deficiency, but also social aspects such as loneliness. One of the most important symptoms is sarcopenia, which is manifested by the loss of strength and muscle mass, leading to motor slowdown, reduced exercise tolerance or a feeling of weakness. It may also be accompanied by abnormal coagulation, anemia, malnutrition or affective disorders. Numerous scales have been developed that are used to diagnose frailty syndrome, enabling the individualization of the diagnostic process. Physical activity and diet play a key role in the process of prevention and treatment.
Conclusions: Population aging is an unquestionable challenge for modern medicine and contributes to the more frequent occurrence of frailty syndrome. Its pathogenesis is complex, but the knowledge of risk factors allows it to select a group of patients who should be carefully monitored. Due to diagnostic difficulties, prophylaxis including age-adjusted physical activity, diet and effective treatment of chronic diseases plays an important role.


frailty syndrome; geriatric syndromes; sarcopenia; old age; review

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