Expression of schizotypal personality traits in healthy individuals versus self-esteem and positive orientation in a mental health context. The first attempt to adapt the shortened version of the Oxford–Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences to the Polish population

Anna Starkowska, Katarzyna Adamowicz, Tytus Kaleta, Monika Mak


Introduction: The object of this study was the expression of schizotypal personality traits observed in healthy people, and their relationship with self-esteem and a positive attitude to life.

The practical aim was the first attempt to use the Oxford-Liver­pool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE) in the 
Polish-language population.

Materials and methods: The questionnaire-based study on a group of 70 men and women employed the Polish translation of the English short version of the O-LIFE scale. In the previous pilot study (n = 202, age 19–88 years) analysis of reliability showed very satisfactory accuracy of the overall score (α = 0.82), and ranged from the low to high reliability of factor scores. Research on the adaptation of the O-LIFE scale to the conditions of the Polish population is currently continuing in the Department of Psychiatry at The Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin in Poland.

Results: The study demonstrated negative relationships between self-esteem, positive orientation and all measures of schizotypal 

traits, particularly in relation to the overall score (r = −0.518) and the dimension of cognitive disorganization (r = −0.531). Those coincide with the stronger manifestations of individual differences in schizotypy which (in the case of mental overload) may predispose patients to the development of schizotypal personality disorder or schizophrenia.

Conclusions: Within the limits of mental health, symptoms of schizotypal personality characteristics were associated with low self-esteem, greater pessimism and lower assessment of life satisfaction. These may reduce the sense of mental and physical well-being, and are risk factors for a variety of mental problems, especially from the psychotic spectrum. In addition, we noted the usefulness of the Polish version of the short O-LIFE scale, mainly in quantitative research and in outlining further research possibilities.


personality measurement; schizotypy; personality disorders; schizophrenia

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