The importance of parental attitudes for locus of control among adolescents

Magdalena Chęć, Karolina Rachubińska, Krystian Konieczny


Introduction: The process of personality formation is closely related to the period of adolescence. One of the dimensions of personality – locus of control (LOC) can be defined as a person’s beliefs about the locus of reinforcement control. Considering that the locus of control is formed as a result of social learning, the adolescent’s perception of the relationship between his own behavior and its consequences may depend largely on his parents’ attitudes toward him.
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between parental attitudes and adolescents’ locus of control.
Materials and methods: The study was conducted among 386 students aged 13–16 years (M = 14.87): 208 girls and 178 boys were included. The research instruments used in the study were the Parental Attitude Scale (SPR-2) by M. Plopa and the Sense of Control Questionnaire – revised version (KBPK-R) by Krasowicz-Kupis and Wojnarska.
Results: According to the results of the study, parental attitudes are related to both the general level of locus of control in adolescents and the locus of control in a situation of success and failure.
Conclusions: The results of the study underscore the importance of parental attitudes and the role of parents in shaping adolescent personality. Research suggests that parental attitudes may be both a risk factor and a protective factor in the development of adolescent psychopathology.


parent-child relationship; adolescent development; adolescent well-being; locus of control; internal-external control

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