The toxicity of Bis-GMA, a basic monomer of the dental composite’s organic matrix – a narrative review

Marta Anna Rogocka, Katarzyna Lewusz-Butkiewicz, Ewa Marek, Małgorzata Mazurek-Mochol, Ryta Łagocka


The long history of bisphenol A glycidyl dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA) as a major component in resin-based composites is also associated with numerous reports of its toxicity. Since one of the substrates used in the production of Bis-GMA is bisphenol A (BPA), the question of its release from materials containing this monomer is also raised. Due to the widespread use of Bis-GMA in modern dentistry, the aim of this narrative review is to provide and summarize information on its toxicity based on the current literature. It covers the chemical structure and possible synthesis pathways of Bis-GMA, as well as the toxicity of its substrates. The toxicity of the Bis-GMA monomer is also discussed, in particular its effect on pulp cells, the release of composite components in the gastrointestinal tract, and its metabolic degradation. Bis-GMA and BPA are eluted from resin composites in the oral cavity. Acute toxicity is unlikely due to the small amounts of amounts eluted, but knowledge of chronic exposure is very limited. In addition, the amount of BPA released from dental materials is incomparably low, considering the environmental exposure levels in everyday life. Composite resins provide a high-quality treatment that outweighs the potential complications.


Bis-GMA; monomer toxicity; resin-based composite; bisphenol A; dental pulp

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