Influence of gestational diabetes mellitus on the birth condition of full-term newborns – a preliminary study

Katarzyna Szymoniak, Nikola Olejnik, Małgorzata Zimny, Olimpia Sipak-Szmigiel


Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as abnormal glucose tolerance, whose symptoms are first detected during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes mellitus is the cause of abnormalities in pregnancy and fetal development. It can be diagnosed by analyzing blood glucose levels and performing mandatory screening tests. This paper describes the general concept of GDM, its risk factors and complications that may occur in the newborn. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of GDM on the birth condition of full-term newborns.
Materials and methods: The study included 104 women divided into 2 groups: study and control. A retrospective method was used to analyze the medical records of the women and their children. The research analysis was performed by calculating the number and percentage of occurrences of each response. The comparison of the qualitative variables between the groups was performed using the χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test where low expected numbers appeared in the tables. A significance level of 0.05 was adopted.
Results: The majority of newborns in both groups got an Apgar score of 8–10 at 1 and 5 min. The results of a pulse oximetry test on the 1st day of life showed that all children had normal saturation of 95–100%, irrespective of whether their mother had diabetes or not. Considering the birth weight, it was shown that neonates from the study group significantly more often were born heavier than their counterparts from the control group (p < 0.001). Analysis of the newborns’ health on successive days of life did not reveal any statistically significant differences in the studied parameters between the groups (p > 0.05). Analysis of congenital anomalies revealed a heart defect in 1 neonate and a kidney defect in 2 neonates from the study group.
Conclusions: 1. Newborns of mothers with GDM are usually born on time by Cesarean section, in good general condition, and with normal blood glucose levels and saturation. 2. Gestational diabetes mellitus affects neonatal birth weight. Babies of mothers with GDM were born heavier than those of healthy mothers. 3. Gestational diabetes mellitus has little effect on neonatal activity and muscle tone, as well as on the incidence of congenital defects.


gestational diabetes; neonate; complications; congenital defects

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