Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for analysis of the composition of kidney stones

Renata Beata Szydlak, Piotr Maciukiewicz



Introduction: Kidney stones are one of the most common diseases of the urinary tract, caused by metabolic and excretory disorders. Identification of the components of the stone is necessary to determine the cause of the formation of deposits and to choose the appropriate therapy.

The aim of the study was to determine the chemical composition of the kidney stones.

Materials and methods: Kidney stones recovered from 46 patients were analyzed for their chemical composition by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The resulting FTIR spectra of the kidney stones were compared to standards.

Results: Of the 46 samples, 58.3% were comprised calcium oxalate, 28.3% struvites and 10.9% uric acid. Gender analysis showed that 69.6% of the examined stones were from men and 30.4% from women. Comparison with age revealed that the majority of respondents are people aged 30–44.

Conclusions: Calcium oxalate, struvites and uric acid are commonly occurring kidney stones.


kidney stones; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR); calcium oxalate; struvites; uric acid

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