The influence of eating habits on the levels of selected hormones, as well as biochemical and anthropometric parameters in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia – a preliminary study

Katarzyna Grzesiak, Aleksandra Rył, Iwona Rotter, Anna Wolska, Barbara Dołęgowska, Marcin Słojewski, Malwina Łazowska-Kuźniak, Maria Laszczyńska


Introduction: There are many causes of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), among which eating habits and related – especially visceral – obesity play an important part. Analysis of men’s eating habits is a crucial aspect of the prevention of BPH.

The aim of the study was to compare eating habits in patients with and without BPH. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, as well as the levels of selected hormones in BPH patients, were determined.

Materials and methods: The study involved 93 men, who were divided into two groups. The study group comprised 44 patients hospitalized in the Clinic of Urology and Oncology, Independent Clinical Hospital No. 2, the Pomeranian Medical University in Szcze­cin (Poland). The control group consisted of 49 men referred from primary care. The survey concerned patients’ eating habits. In the study, we used the spectrophotometric method to measure biochemical parameters, the ELISA method to determine serum hormone levels, and we performed anthropometric measurements.

Results: The study demonstrated that patients with a diagnosis of BPH had better eating habits and were more physically active 

than patients without BPH symptoms. Men practicing physical activity more than three times a week had lower levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol (TCh). Those who drank alcohol more than 3 times a week had a bigger waist size. Patients also admitted consuming sweets, sweetened beverages, and salty snacks. This, however, had no statistically significant impact on the levels of biochemical and hormonal parameters. Patients who ate vegetables every day had significantly lower luteinizing hormone levels, while those eating natural dairy products had higher DHEAS levels.

Conclusions: Healthy eating habits may have effects on the serum levels of TCh, its LDL fraction, DHEAS and sex hormone binding globulin, but no impact on total testosterone levels in BPH patients. Frequent alcohol consumption may contribute to visceral obesity. Awareness of the disease may contribute to healthy diet and higher level of physical activity.


benign prostatic hyperplasia; eating habits; hormones

Full Text:

PDF (Język Polski)


Chan JM, Giovannucci EL. Vegetables, fruits, associated micronutrients, and risk of prostate cancer. Epidemiol Rev 2001;23:82-6.

Boyle P, McGinn R, Maisonneuve P. Epidemiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia: present knowledge and studies needed. Eur Urol 1991;20:3-10.

Nandeesha H. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: dietary and metabolic risk factors. Int Urol Nephrol 2008;40:649-56.

Gu F. Changes in the prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia in China. Chin Med J 1997;110:163-6.

Denis L, Morton MS, Griffiths K. Diet and its preventive role in prostatic disease. Eur Urol 1999;35:377-87.

Donaldson MS. Nutrition and cancer: a review of the evidence for an anti-cancer diet. Nutr 2004;3:19.

Shukla S, Gupta S. Dietary agents in the chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Nutr Cancer 2005;53:18-32.

Chan JM, Gann PH, Giovannucci EL. Role of diet in prostate cancer development and progression. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:8152-60.

Barnard RJ, Kobayashi N, Aronson WJ. Effect of diet and exercise intervention on the growth of prostate epithelial cells. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2008;11(4):362-6. doi: 10.1038/pcan.2008.6.

Suzuki S, Platz EA, Kawachi I. Intakes of energy and macronutrients and the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:689-97.

Araki H, Watanabe H, Mishina T, Nakao M. High-risk group for benign prostatic hypertrophy. Prostate 1983;4(3):253-64.

Lagiou P, Wuu J, Trichopoulou A, Hsieh CC, Adami HO, Trichopoulos D. Diet and benign prostatic hyperplasia: a study in Greece. Urology 1999;54(2):284-90.

Shankar E, Bhaskaran N, MacLennan GT, Liu G, Daneshgari F, Gupta S. Inflammatory signaling involved in high-fat diet induced prostate diseases. J Urol Res 2015;2(1):pii1018.

Zlotta AR, Egawa S, Pushkar D, Govorov A, Kimura T, Kido M, et al. Prevalence of inflammation and benign prostatic hyperplasia on autopsy in Asian and Caucasian men. Eur Urol 2014;66:619-22.

Starownik R, Bar K, Urban M. Łagodny rozrost stercza – częsty problem mężczyzn po 50. roku życia. Czytelnia medyczna. Borgis – Medycyna Rodzinna 2003;1:38-43.,lagodny-rozrost-stercza-czesty-problem-mezczyzn-po-50-roku-zycia.html (25.01.2017).

Wnęk D. BMI i inne wskaźniki służące ocenie masy ciała. Medycyna praktyczna dla pacjentów; 2015.,bmi-i-inne-wskazniki-sluzace-ocenie-masy-ciala (25.01.2017).

Barnard ND. Nutrition and prostate health. Food for life cancer project. Committee for Responsible Medicine; 2016. (25.01.2017).

Paur I, Lilleby W, Bøhn SK, Hulander E, Klein W, Vlatkovic L, et al. Tomato-based randomized controlled trial in prostate cancer patients: Effect on PSA. Clin Nutr 2017;36(3):672-9. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2016.06.014.

Gong X, Marisiddaiah R, Zaripheh S, Wiener D, Rubin LP. Mitochondrial β-carotene 9’,10’ oxygenase modulates prostate cancer growth via NF-κB inhibition: a lycopene-independent function. Mol Cancer Res 2016;14:966-75.

Signorello LB, Tzonou A, Lagiou P. The epidemiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a study in Greece. BJU Int 1999;84:286-91.

Gass R. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: the opposite effects of alcohol and coffee intake. BJU Int 2002;90:649-54.


Copyright (c) 2017 Katarzyna Grzesiak, Aleksandra Rył, Iwona Rotter, Anna Wolska, Barbara Dołęgowska, Marcin Słojewski, Malwina Łazowska-Kuźniak, Maria Laszczyńska

License URL: