Protein-based diet with respect to the principles of rational nutrition. Menus analysis

Małgorzata Szczuko, Natalia Pieszak, Dominika Jamioł-Milc, Ewa Stachowska


Introduction: A diet high in protein and low in carbohydrates has four phases, first of them being the attack phase, which eliminates carbohydrates to the highest extent. In subsequent phases the consumption of carbohydrates is gradually allowed but their ratio is limited. The aim of performed studies was to analyze the metabolic effects of protein -based diet. The hypothesis – the analysis based on the composition of the diets should draw the attention to health risks being not only related to too high consumption of protein.

Materials and methods: In the study, 40 diets were composed according to the objectives of high protein diet – 10 diets for each of the four phases. Next, the diets were introduced into dietetic program Dietician 2 recommended by the National Food and Nutrition Institute in Poland, and the amounts of nutrients supplied with the diets were calculated. Those amounts were compared to the currently recommended dietary allowances in Poland.

Results: Based on too high consumption of some nutrients and the deϐiciency of others in the diets, the highest detrimental effect was determined for the ϐirst two phases of the diet. In all four phases of the diet, too high consumption of protein, UFA and cholesterol was determined, which amounted to 148.8–160.5 g/day, 12.5–16.2 g/day and 467.7–488.7 mg/day, respectively. Simultaneously, too low average consumption was noted in case of energy (1131–1690 kcal), carbohydrates (58.2–149.4 g) and dietary ϐiber (3.3–28.7 g) in all phases of the diet. Additionally, the deficiency in vitamin E (2.69–7.21 mg) was observed in the ϐirst three phases of the diet, and thiamin in the ϐirst two phases (0.72–1.02 mg). The most deϐicient phase of the diet was the ϐirst phase – the attack phase, where the deϐiciency also concerned folacin (154.4 mg/day), vitamin C (6.14 mg), potassium (2947.7 mg), iron (7.19 mg), copper (0.59 mg) and magnesium (294.8 mg).

Conclusions: The main causes of body mass reduction in high protein diet are caloric restrictions in all diet phases. The analyses of diets compositions determined the potential negative effect of using this diet in case of people with predisposition to kidney diseases, gout, cardiovascular diseases, anemia and erythropoiesis disorders. The most detrimental was the ϐirst phase of the diet, which entirely eliminates carbohydrate products.


protein-based diet; protein intake; trendy diets; diet health risk

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