Study on the quantitative and qualitative composition of moulds colonizing sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus L.)

Katarzyna Janda, Jolanta Wolska, Kamila Dębia


Introduction: The aim of study was to estimate the qualitative and quantitative composition of moulds colonizing sunflower seeds on RBCA, YpSs, DG18 media at 25, 37, and 45°C.

Material: Twenty samples of sunflower seeds (not roasted and not salted) were used for the analysis. The highest number of moulds were xerophilic species isolated on DG18 at 25°C (33), followed by mesophilic species (29) on RBCA medium at 25°C, and mesophilic (22) and thermophilic species (10) on YpSs medium at 37° and 45°C, respectively. Eurotium herbariorum was isolated from all samples. A total of 287 strains belonging to 52 mould species were isolated from sunflower seeds.

Conclusion: The study revealed new species not previously isolated from sunflower seeds mycobiota.


moulds, sunflower seeds

Full Text:

PDF (Język Polski)


De Lucca A.J.: Harmful fungi in both agriculture and medicine. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2007, 24 (1), 3–13.

Hadanich D., Peredi J., Juhasz‑Roman M., Nagy B.: The effect of microorganisms deteriorating quality in storing sunflower seed. Acta Alimentaria. 2008, 37 (1), 77–86.

Krysińska‑Traczyk E., Kiecana I., Perkowski J., Dutkiewicz J.: Levels of fungi and mycotoxins in samples of grain and grain dust collected on farms in eastern Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2001, 8 (2), 269–274.

Baliukoniene V., Bakutis B., Stankevicius H.: Mycological and mycotoxicological evaluation of grain. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2003, 10 (2), 223–227.

Krysińska‑Traczyk E., Perkowski J., Dutkiewicz J.: Levels of fungi and mycotoxins in the samples of grain and grain dust collected from five various cereal crops in eastern Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2007, 14 (1), 159–167.

Jajić I., Jurić V., Abramović B.: First survey of deoxynivalenol occurence in crops in Serbia. Food Control. 2008, 19, 545–550.

Berghofer L.K., Hocking A.D., Miskelly D., Jansson E.: Microbiology of ,wheat and flour milling in Australia. Int J Food Microbiol. 2003, 85 (1–2), 137–149.

Niaz I., Dawar S.: Detection of seed borne mycoflora in maize (Zea mays L.). Pak J Bot. 2009, 41 (1), 443–451.

Kumar V., Basu M.S., Rajendran T.P.: Mycotoxin research and mycoflora in some commercially important agriculture commodities. Crop Protection. 2008, 27 (6), 891–905.

Pacin A.M., Gonzales H.H.L., Etcheverry M., Resnik S.L., Vivas L., Espin S.: Fungi associated with food and feed commodities from Ecuador. Mycopathologia. 2002, 156 (2), 87–92.

Park J.W., Choi S.Y., Hwang H.J., Kim Y.B.: Fungal mycoflora and mycotoxins in Korean polished rice destined for human. Int J Food Microbiol. 2005, 103 (3), 305–314.

Silv C.F., Schwan R.F., Dias E.S., Wheals A.E.: Microbial diversity during maturation and natural processing of coffee cherries of Coffea arabicain Brazil. Int J Food Microbiol. 2000, 60 (2–3), 251–260.

Batista L.R., Chalfoun S.M., Prado G., Schwan R.F., Wheals A.E.: Toxigenic fungi associated with processed (green) coffee beans (Coffea arabica L.). Int J Food Microbiol. 2003, 85, 293–300.

Mounjouenpou P., Gueule D., Fontana‑Tachon A., Guyot B., Tondje P.R., Guiraud J.P.: Filamentous fungi producing ochratoxin a during cocoa processing in Cameroon. Int J Food Microbiol. 2008, 121 (2), 234–241.

Freire F.C., Kozakiewicz Z., Paterson R.R.: Mycoflora and mycotoxins in Brazilian black pepper, white pepper and Brazilian nuts. Mycopathologia. 2000, 149 (1), 13–19.

Overy D.P., Seifert K.A., Savard M.E., Frisvad J.C.: Spoilage fungi and their mycotoxins in commercially marketed chestnuts. Int J Food Microbiol. 2003, 88 (1), 69–77.

Aliyu B.S., Kutama A.S.: Isolation and identification of fungal flora associated with groundnut in different storage facilities. Sci World J. 2007, 2 (2), 34–36.

Khosravi A.R., Shokri H., Ziglari T.: Evaluation of fungal flora in some important nut products (pistachio, peanut, hazelnut and almond) in Tehran, Iran. Pak J Nutr. 2007, 6 (5), 460–462.

Singh P.K., Shukla A.N.: Survey of mycoflora counts, aflatoxin production and induced biochemical changes in walnut kernels. J Stored Prod Res. 2008, 44 (2), 169–172.

Youssef M.S., El‑Maghraby O.M.O., Ibrahim Y.M.: Mycobiota and mycotoxins of Egyptian peanut (Arachis hypogeae) seeds. Int J Bot. 2008, 4 (4),349–360.

Weidenbörner M.: Pumpkin seeds – the mycobiota and potential mycotoxins. Eur Food Res Technol. 2012, 12, 281–297.

Altan N., Khan S.A., Ahmad M., Asghar R.: Seed borne mycoflora of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and their effect on germination and seedling. Pak J Biol Sci. 2004, 7 (2), 243–245.

Leichtfried D., Krist S., Puchinger L., Messner K., Buchbauer G.: Investigation of the natural microflora of poppy seeds (Papaver somniferum) and hazelnuts kernels (Coryllus avellana) including microbiological decomposition. Eur Food Res Technol. 2004, 219, 282–285.

Domijan A.M., Peraica M., Zlender V., Cvjetkovic B., Zurjević Z., Topolovec‑Pintarić S. et al.: Seed‑borne fungi and ochratoxin A contamination of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Republic of Croatia. Food Chem Toxicol. 2005, 43 (3), 427–432.

Gruzdeviene E., Mankevičiene A., Laugauskas A., Repečkiene J.: The effectof environmental conditions on the variation of fungi and mycotoxin content in oil flax seed. Ekologija. 2006, 3, 64–70.

Mandeel Q.A.: Fungal contamination of some imported spices. Mycopathologia. 2005, 159 (2), 291–298.

Khan S.N., Riaz T., Hannan A., Mukhtar I.: Fungal contamination of medicinal herbs during commercial storage in Punjab. Mycopathologia. 2006, 4 (1), 21–25.

Abou Donia M.A.: Microbiological quality and aflatoxinogenesis of Egyptian spices and medicinal plants. Global Veterinaria. 2008, 2 (4), 175–181.

Koul A., Sumbali G.: Detection of zearalenone, zearalenol and deoxynivalenol from medicinally important dried rhizomes and root tubers. Afr J Biotechnol. 2008, 7 (22), 4136–4139.

Laugauskas A., Stakeniene J.: Toxin producing micromycetes of fruit, berries and vegetables. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2002, 9 (2), 183–197.

Alghalibi S.M., Shater A.R.: Mycoflora and mycotoxin contamination of some dried fruits in Yemen Republic. Ass Univ Bull Environ Res. 2004, 7 (2), 19–25.

Dymić G.R., Maletić Z.M., Kocić‑Tanackov S.D.: Xerotolerant mycopopulations and mycotoxins in muesli components. Proc Nat Sci Matica SrpskaNovi Sad. 2005, 109, 81–87.

Laugauskas A., Repečkiene J., Novosinskas H.: Micromycetes, producers of toxins, detected on stored vegetables. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2005,

(2), 253–260.

Moss M.O.: Fungi, quality and safety issues in fresh fruits and vegetables. J Appl Microbiol. 2008, 104 (5), 1239–1243.

Hell K., Gnonlonfin B.G., Kodjogbe G., Lamboni Y., Abdourhamane I.K.: Mycoflora and occurrence of aflatoxin in dried vegetables in Benin, Mali andTogo, West Africa. Int J Food Microbiol. 2009, 135 (2), 99–104.

Samson R.A., Hoekstra E.S., Frisvad J.C., Filtenborg O.: Introduction to food and airborne fungi. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht 2000.

Del Fratte G., Caretta G.: Fungi isolated from Antarctic material. Polar Biol. 1990, 11, 1–7.

Cooney D.G., Emerson R.: Thermophilic fungi. An account of their biology, activities and classification. W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco–London 1964.

Raper K.B., Fennel K.D.: The genus Aspergillus. Krieger Publishing Company, Huntington–New York 1977.

Domsch K.H., Gams W., Anderson T.H.: Compendium of Soil Fungi. Academic Press, London–San Francisco 1980.

Hoog de G.S., Guarro J., Gene J., Figueras M.J.: Atlas of Clinical Fungi. Centraal‑bureau,voor Schimmelcultures & Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Utrecht–,Reus 2000.

Klich M.A.: Identification of common Aspergillus species. Centraalbureau,voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht 2000.

Samson R.A., Pitt J.I.: Integration of modern taxonomic methods for Penicillium and Aspergillus. Harwood Publishers, Amsterdam 2000.

Frisvad J.C., Samson R.A.: Polyphasic taxonomy of Penicillium subgenus, Penicillium. A guide to identification of food and air‑borne terverticillate

Penicillia and their mycotoxins. Stud Mycol. 2004, 49, 1–174.

Samson R.A., Frisvad J.C.: Penicillium subgenus Penicillium: new taxonomic schemes and mycotoxins and other extrolites. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures,

Utrecht 2004.

Al‑Julaifi M.Z., Al‑Khaliel A.S., Elkhider K.A.: Patulin production by fungi isolated from barley locally grown in Saudi Arabia. J King Saud Univ Sci. 1996, (8) 1, 19–24.

Krikštaponis A., Stakėnienė J., Laugauskas A.: Toxigenic fungi in human environment. Biologija. 2001, 4, 10–12.

Soroka P.M., Cyprowski M., Szadkowska‑Stańczyk I.: Narażenie zawodowe na mykotoksyny w różnych gałęziach przemysłu. Med Pr. 2008, 59 (4),


Robertson J.A., Roberts R.G., Chapman W.: An evaluation of “heat damage” and fungi in relation to sunflower seed quality. Phytopathology. 1985, 75 (2), 142–145.

Robertson J.A., Roberts R.G., Morrison W.H.: Chemical and fungal evaluation of graded sunflowerseed. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 1987, 64 (2), 224–228.

Jimenez M., Mateo R., Querol A., Huberta T., Hernandez E.: Mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic moulds in nuts and sunflower seeds for human consumption. Mycopathologia. 1991, 115 (2), 121–127.

Shahda W.T., Tarabeih A.M., Michail S.H., Hemeda A.A.H.: Fungi associated with sunflower seeds in Egypt with reference to chemical control measures. J King Saud Univ Sci. 1991, 3 (2), 287–293.

Pozzi C.R., Braghini R., Arcaro J.R., Zorzete P., Israel A.L., Pozar I.O. et al.: Mycoflora and occurrence of alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether in Brazilian sunflower from sowing to harvest. J Agr Food Chem. 2005, 53 (14), 5824–5828.

Sharfun‑Nahar M.M., Mushtaq M., Hashmi M.H.: Seed‑borne mycoflora of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Pak J Bot. 2005, 37 (2), 451–457.

Raj M.H., Niranjana S.R., Nayaka S.C., Shetty H.S.: Health status of farmers saved paddy, sorghum, sunflower and cowpea seeds in Karnataka, India. World J Agric Sci. 2007, 3 (2), 167–177.


Copyright (c) 2015 Katarzyna Janda, Jolanta Wolska, Kamila Dębia

License URL: