Prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool children from a kindergarten in the West Pomeranian voivodeship in Poland

Patrycja Kapczuk, Lidia Kołodziejczyk, Dariusz Chlubek

Abstract


Introduction: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool children in Złocieniec, a town in north-western Poland. Therefore, it was decided to assess the extent of intestinal parasite infection, the prevalence of individual parasite species, and the usefulness of clinical symptoms reported by parents/guardians of children for parasitological screening.
Materials and methods: The study was conducted in 88 children aged 3–6 years. Parasitological diagnosis was performed by standard coproscopic method. For intestinal parasites, direct smears of feces in saline (0.9% NaCl) and stained with Lugol’s fluid were performed. Pinworms were examined by the cellophane sticking method (according to Graham).
Results: The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in children was 12.5%. In the study group of preschool children, 2 species of intestinal parasites were identified: Blastocystis hominis (3 cases) and Enterobius vermicularis (8 cases). The most frequently diagnosed species of intestinal parasites was human pinworm, with a prevalence of 9.09%, while the prevalence of B. hominis infection was 3.41%. There was no co-occurrence of these parasite species in any child. The highest incidence of intestinal parasite infestation was detected in 6-year-old children, whose infection rate was 45.45%, while no intestinal parasite species was detected in 4-year-old children. Among the preschool children infected with intestinal parasites, 81.82% lived in urban areas and 18.18% lived in the countryside, while all (100%) children infected with human pinworm came from urban areas. Clinical symptoms characteristic of E. vermicularis infection (1–9) were reported in 43 (48.86%) of the children examined, regardless of the test result. The occurrence of symptoms characteristic of enterobiasis (1–9) was reported in only 50% of the children infected with E. vermicularis, and only 1 child had 9 symptoms typical of the presence of E. vermicularis. There were no cases of reinfection with pinworms in 7 children (7.95%) with previously diagnosed pinworms.
Conclusions: The prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool children in Złocieniec is lower than the prevalence in West Pomeranian voivodeship, but similar to that found in other regions of Poland. Therefore, the potential risk of infection among the inhabitants of Złocieniec is low. The prevalence of E. vermicularis in children in Złocieniec is similar to its prevalence in Poland and Europe. It was found that clinical signs reported by parents/guardians of children may not always serve as a guideline for parasitologic examination.

Keywords


parasitosis; children; digestive tract; intestinal parasites; Poland

Full Text:

PDF

References


Khubchandani IT, Bub DS. Parasitic Infections. Clin Colon Rectal Surg 2019;32(5):364-71.

Steverding D. The spreading of parasites by human migratory activities. Virulence 2020;11(1):1177-91.

Zulfiqar H, Mathew G, Horrall S. Amebiasis. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023.

Chou A, Austin RL. Entamoeba histolytica Infection. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023.

Abate M, Eriso F, Kalyankar VB, Padwal ND, Singh SC, Upadhye V, et al. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica among schoolchildren in Dilla town, Gedeo zone, Ethiopia. Infect Dis Now 2023;53(1):104621.

Kowalewska B, Rudzinska M, Zarudzka D, Kotlowski A. Evaluation of the frequency of parasite infections of outpatient clinics of the Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine in Gdynia during the last 30 years. Diagn Lab 2013;49(1):9-15.

Kubiak K, Wrońska M, Dzika E, Dziedziech M, Poźniak H, Leokajtis M, et al. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in children in preschools and orphanages in the Warmia-Masuria province (North-Eastern Poland). Przegl Epidemiol 2015;69(3):483-8, 601-4.

Pawłowski Z. Global health situation in the world with consideration of selected parasitic infections in Poland. Wiad Parazytol 2008;54(1):17-22.

Hardwick RJ, Vegvari C, Truscott JE, Anderson RM. The ‘breakpoint’ of soil-transmitted helminths with infected human migration. J Theor Biol 2020;486:110076.

Avaria A, Ventura-Garcia L, Sanmartino M, Van der Laat C. Population movements, borders, and Chagas disease. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2022;117:e210151.

Doyle SR, Søe MJ, Nejsum P, Betson M, Cooper PJ, Peng L, et al. Population genomics of ancient and modern Trichuris trichiura. Nat Commun 2022;13(1):3888.

Alyousefi NA, Mahdy MA, Mahmud R, Lim YAL. Factors associated with high prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections among patients in Sana’a City, Yemen. PLoS One 2011;6(7):e22044..

Horikoshi Y, Ibrahim UM, Morris SK. School-based approach for parasitic disease control in Japan and Africa. Pediatr Int 2021;63(3):264-9.

Xu Y, Wang Y, Wang L, Kong X, Yan G, Li Y, et al. The prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and its influential factors in Shandong Province, China: an analysis of surveillance data from 2016 to 2020. Infect Dis Poverty 2023;12(1):54.

Jansen F, Dorny P, Gabriël S, Dermauw V, Johansen MV, Trevisan C. The survival and dispersal of Taenia eggs in the environment: what are the implications for transmission? A systematic review. Parasit Vectors 2021;14(1):88.

Borecka A, Gawor J, Niedworok M, Sordyl B. Occurrence of Toxocara spp. eggs in household environment of children with diagnosed toxocariasis in Łódź voivodeship. Wiad Parazytol 2010;56(2):141-4.

Hudzik G, Wodzislawska-Czapla D. Threats related to the presence of eggs of intestinal parisites in sludge. Przegl Epidemiol 2011;65(3):459-61.

Kosicika-Dziechciarek D, Wolna-Maruwka A, Mazurkiewicz J. The danger of pathogenic organisms in sewage sludge and methods of their reduction. Arch Gosp Odpad Ochr Środ 2015;17(4):127-38.

Sadowska N, Tomza-Marciniak A, Juszczak M. Soil contamination with geohelminths in children’s play areas in Szczecin, Poland. Ann Parasitol 2019;65(1):65-70.

Baptista-Fernandes T, Rodrigues M, Castro I, Paixão P, Pinto-Marques P, Roque L, et al. Human gastric hyperinfection by Anisakis simplex: A severe and unusual presentation and a brief review. Int J Infect Dis 2017;64:38-41.

Simsek E, Pekmezci GZ, Yildirim A, Duzlu O, Onder Z, Ciloglu A, et al. Investigation of Anisakis larvae in different products of ready-to-eat fish meat and imported frozen fish in Turkey. Int J Food Microbiol 2020;333:108829.

Bilska-Zając E, Różycki M, Chmurzyńska E, Osek J. Current problems associated with Anisakis simplex – a parasite of marine fish. Life Wet 2012;87(2):136-40.

Pravettoni V, Primavesi L, Piantanida M. Anisakis simplex: current knowledge. Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol 2012;44(4):150-6.

Hara Y, Uruma T, Morishima Y, Hirai Y. ‘Tingling throat syndrome’ as asymptomatic anisakiasis following conveyor belt sushi consumption in Tokyo. Int J Infect Dis 2019;82:102-3.

Wongstitwilairoong B, Srijan A, Serichantalergs O, Fukuda CD, McDaniel P, Bodhidatta L, et al. Intestinal parasitic infection among pre-school children in Sangkhlaburi, Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2007;76(2):345-50.

González-Ramírez LC, Robalino-Flores X, De la Torre E, Parra-Mayorga P, Prato JG, Trelis M, et al. Influence of Environmental Pollution and Living Conditions on Parasite Transmission among Indigenous Ecuadorians. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022;19(11):6901.

Ola-Fadunsin SD, Adebanjo AO, Abdullah DA, Hussain K, Sanda IM, Rabiu M, et al. Epidemiology and public health implications of parasitic contamination of fruits, vegetables, and water in Kwara Central, Nigeria. Ann Parasitol 2022;68(2):339-52.

Banke RO, Omudu EA, Ikenwa DA, Feese IJ. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites in relation to availability of sanitary facilities among schooling children in Makurdi, Nigeria. Anim Res Int 2006;3(2):489-93.

Molina N, Pezzani B, Ciarmela M, Orden A, Rosa D, Apezteguia M, et al. Intestinal parasites and genotypes of Giardia intestinalis in school children from Berisso, Argentina. J Infect Dev Ctries 2011;5(7):527-34.

Alamir M, Awoke W, Feleke A. Intestinal parasites infection and associated factors among school children in Dagi primary school, Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. Health 2013;5(10):1697-701.

Irma KG, Thierry EJ, Isaka KN, Vanelle WS, Efietngab AN, Emilie TT, et al. Parasitological assessment of some fruits and vegetables commonly sold in retail outlets in the Mfoundi Division of Cameroon. Parasite Epidemiol Control 2023;22:e00313.

Nowak P, Jochymek M, Pietrzyk A. Occurrence of human intestinal parasites in selected populations of Cracow region in the years 2000–2006 on the basis of parasitological stool examinations performed in the Laboratory of Parasitology of the District Sanitary−Epidemiological Center. Wiad Parazytol 2007;53(4):285-93.

Kasprzak J, Szaładzińska B, Smoguła M, Ziuziakowski M. Intestinal parasites in stool samples and perianal swabs examined by The Voivodeship Sanitary-Epidemiological Station in Bydgoszcz between 2000–2014. Przegl Epidemiol 2017;71(1):45-54.

Odongo AO, Moturi WN, Mbuthia EK. Heavy metals and parasitic geohelminths toxicity among geophagous pregnant women: a case study of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. Environ Geochem Health 2016;38(1):123-31.

Din ZU, Pervez L, Amir A, Abbas M, Khan I, Iqbal Z, et al. Parasitic infections, malnutrition and anemia among preschool children living in rural areas of Peshawar, Pakistan. Nutr Hosp 2018;35(5):1145-52.

Kroten A, Toczylowski K, Oldak E, Sulik A. Toxocarosis in children: poor hygiene habits and contact with dogs is related to longer treatment. Parasitol Res 2018;117(5):1513-9.

Pieroni F, Massei F, Micheletti MV, Luti L, De Marco E, Ludovisi A, et al. Toxocariasis in a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021;18(1):283.

Shakya B, Shrestha S, Madhikarmi NL, Adhikari R. Intestinal parasitic infection among school children. J Nepal Health Res Counc 2012;10(1):20-3.

Oyeniran OA, Ojurongbe O, Oladipo EK, Afolabi AY, Ajayi OO, Oloke AA. Intestinal Parasitic Infection among Primary School Pupils in Osogbo Nigeria. IOSR-JDMS2014;13(7):96-101.

Tandukar S, Sherchan JB, Thapa P, Malla D, Bhandari D, Ghaju R, et al. Intestinal Parasite Infection among School Going Children in Kathmandu Valley. Austin J Pediatr 2015;2(2):1022-5.

Li J, Wang Z, Karim MR, Zhang L. Detection of human intestinal protozoan parasites in vegetables and fruits: a review. Parasit Vectors 2020;13(1):380.

Feng Y, Yu K, Chen H, Zhang X, Lu Q, Wang X, et al. Soil-transmitted helminths, intestinal protozoa and Clonorchis sinensis infections in southeast China. BMC Infect Dis 2021;21(1):1195.

Wiercińska-Drapało A. Giardiosis – clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment. Gastroenterol Klin 2010;2(3):98-102.

Hadaś E, Derda M. Parasites – a threat still present. Probl Hig Epidemiol 2014;95(1):6-13.

Dorny P, Praet N, Deckers N, Gabriel S. Emerging food-borne parasites. Vet Parasitol 2009;163(3):196-206.

Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2003. Department of Epidemiology NIZP-PZH. https://wwwold.pzh.gov.pl/oldpage/epimeld/2003/Ch_2003.pdf (14.10.2023).

Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2006. Department of Epidemiology NIZP-PZH. https://wwwold.pzh.gov.pl/oldpage/epimeld/2006/Ch_2006.pdf (14.10.2023).

Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2009. Department of Epidemiology NIZP-PZH. https://wwwold.pzh.gov.pl/oldpage/epimeld/2009/Ch_2009.pdf (14.10.2023).

Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012. Department of Epidemiology NIZP-PZH. https://wwwold.pzh.gov.pl/oldpage/epimeld/2012/Ch_2012.pdf (14.10.2023).

Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014. Department of Epidemiology NIZP-PZH. http://wwwold.pzh.gov.pl/oldpage/epimeld/2014/Ch_2014.pdf (14.10.2023).

Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2016. Department of Epidemiology NIZP-PZH. https://wwwold.pzh.gov.pl/oldpage/epimeld/2016/Ch_2016.pdf (14.10.2023).

Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2023. Department of Epidemiology NIZP-PZH. https://wwwold.pzh.gov.pl/oldpage/epimeld/2023/index_mp.html (14.10.2023).

Brochocka A, Szczukowska H, Kasprzak J. Retrospective evaluation of the incidence of scabies – currently not registered but a frequently quoted parasitosis in Poland in the past. Probl Hig Epidemiol 2014;95(1):62-6.

Korzeniewski K. Program profilaktyki chorób parasożytniczych przewodu pokarmowego. Lek Wojsk 2015;93(4):335-41.

Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2004. Department of Epidemiology NIZP-PZH. http://wwwold.pzh.gov.pl/oldpage/epimeld/2004/Ch_2004.pdf (14.10.2023).

Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2008. Department of Epidemiology NIZP-PZH. http://wwwold.pzh.gov.pl/oldpage/epimeld/2008/Ch_2008.pdf (14.10.2023).

Ras-Noryńska M, Białkowska J, Sokół R, Piskorz-Ogórek K. Parasitological stool examination from children without the typical symptoms of parasitic disease. Przegl Epidemiol 2011;65(4):599-603.

Korzeniewski K. Intestinal parasitic infestations in children living in Warsaw. Fam Med Prim Care Rec 2016;18(2):132-7.

Mbae CK, Nokes DJ, Mulinge E, Nyambura J, Waruru A, Kariuki S. Intestinal parasitis in children presenting with diarrhea in outpatient and inpatient settings in an informal settlement of Nairobi, Kenya. BMC Infect Dis 2013;13:243.

Bitkowska E, Wnukowska N, Wojtyniak B, Dzbeński TH. Occurrence of intestinal parasites among first grade students in Poland in years 2002/2003. Przegl Epidemiol 2004;58(2):295-302.

Nowak P. Entamoeba histolytica – parasitic protozoan of human colon. Diagn Lab 2007;43:155-71.

Płonka W, Dzbeński TH. The occurrence of intestinal parasites among children attending first classes of the elementary schools in Poland in the school year 1997/1998. Przegl Epidemiol 1999;53(3-4):331-8.

Biaduń W, Chybowski J, Rukasz H, Stanios H. Occurence of gastrointestinal parasites in children in Lublin region in the period 1976–2000. Wiad Parazytol 2001;47(3):417-22.

Spausta G, Gorczyńska D, Ciarkowska J, Wiczkowski A, Krzanowska E, Gawron K. Frequency of human parasites in selected populations of Silesian. Wiad Parazytol 2005;51(1):25-9.

Hęciak S. Enterobiosis – analysis of infections in human populations of villages and towns and infections in families. Wiad Parazytol 2006;52(4):331-5.

Angelov I, Lukanov T, Tsvetkova N, Petkova V, Nicoloff G. Clinical, immunological and parasitological parallels in patients with blastocystosis. J IMAB – Ann Procceding (Scientific Papers) 2008;14(1):55-58.

Duda A, Kosik-Bogacka D, Łanocha N, Szymański S. Blastocystis hominis – parasites or commensal? Ann Acad Med Stetin 2014;60(1):23-8. doi: 10.21164/pomjlifesci.7.

Doye PW, Helgason MM, Mathias RG, Proctor EM. Epidemiology and pathogenicity of Blastocystis hominis. J Clin Microbiol 1990;28(1):116-21.

Ozçakir O, Güreser S, Ergüven S, Yilmaz YA, Topaloğlu R, Hasçelik G. Characteristisc of Blastocystis hominis infection in a Turkish university hospital. Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2007;31(4):277-82.

Baldo ET, Belizario VY, De Leon WU, Kong HH, Chung DI. Infection status of intestinal parasites in children living in residential institutions in Metro Mannila, the Philippines. Korean J Parasitol 2004;42(2):67-70.

Amin OM. The epidemiology of Blastocystis hominis in the United States. J Parasitol Res 2006;5(3):1-10.

Ramisz A, Królikowska A, Balicka-Ramisz A. Epidemiological study of giardiosis in inhabitants of Szczecin. Wiad Parazytol 1999;45(1):69-74.

Rodriguez EJ, Gama MA, Ornstein SM, Anderson WD. Ascariasis causing small bowel volvulus. Radiographics 2001;23(5):1291-3.

Li QY, Zhao DH, Qu HY, Zhou CN. Life-threatening complications of ascariasis in trauma patients: a review of the literature. World J Emerg Med 2014;5(3):165-70.

Gniadek A, Cepuch G, Ochender K, Salamon D. The level of knowledge about parasitic diseases and the threats resulting from their presence in the environment evaluated in a group of parents of preschool children. Ann Parasitol 2015;61(2):109-14.

Pawlowski ZS. Parasitic diseases in national epidemiological annals. Hygeia Pub Health 2011;45(1):1-7.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.21164/pomjlifesci.1062

Copyright (c) 2024 Patrycja Kapczuk, Lidia Kołodziejczyk, Dariusz Chlubek

License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/pl/